22 December 2015
There is a fondamental difference between Classification and Detection, let's say for the binary case. On the one hand, Classification distinguishes two well-defined classes and everything is symmetric. On the other hand, Detection aims to detect one class versus the rest of the world, so the problem is not symmetric. For example, getting a nice dataset for Classification is fairly easy, it is enough to sample points from the positive and the negative classes. But in the Detection case, it is very difficult to sample "enough" points from the negative cases because representing the rest of the world is fairly difficult. For example, in the latent-SVM paper from Felzenszwalb et al for Object Detection there is a tedious Hard Negative Mining step to cope with this problem.
More recently, the Convolutional Neural Networks revolution started by the seminal work of Alex Krizhevsky's AlexNet, handles this problem by leveraging a huge number of classes (thousands) in a simulataneous One-vs-Rest fashion. As we speak, there is no explicit discriminative framework for Detection without Classification. Maybe the One-class SVM framework could do but I did not experiment with it.